There might be different kinds of constraints: environmental, landscape and archaeological (moreover the landowners may not be disposed to building the plant).In the event that all of these activities have a positive outcome, a connection request is then made and the amount of sun or wind is measured using suitable instruments. In the case of wind farms, this activity may require more than one year to achieve a reasonable certainty about the availability of the resource.
Once a (economically feasible) connection point has been obtained and the resource has been verified, we apply for authorization. This involves preparing a final design for approval, attaching the environmental impact assessment as well as the specialist studies (birdlife, hydrogeology, landscape).
The authorization process is the longest stage of the process, as it may require up to 2-3 years for photovoltaics and 5-7 years for wind. The outcome may be a total or partial rejection, which could make building the plant unworkable. If all the permissions are obtained, the construction of the plant goes ahead. In parallel to all of these stages, another activity has recently been added regarding the negotiation of PPAs (Power Purchase Agreements) for offtaking the energy.
1. Availability of natural resources necessary for energy production
2. Accessibility to the site, connection to the electricity grid and any environmental restrictions
3. Consent of Public Administration, local communities and land owners
4. Economic parameters, such as the sale price of the energy produced, construction and management costs, plant yield
5. Authorization procedures for the development, construction and operation of the plants
6. Stability of the current regulatory framework and potential changes in anticipation